Women in the labor force: a databook

Republished with the permission of the US BLS

 

In 2019, 57.4 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was up from 57.1 percent who participated in 2018, but 2.6 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.2 percent in 2019, little changed from the previous year and 17.4 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. With the dawn of the 21st century, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline, until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 of 56.7 percent.

Women’s involvement in the labor market has changed in several notable ways over the past several decades. For example, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: from 1970 to 2019, the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree quadrupled, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree a little more than doubled over that time. Since 1970, women have become more likely to work full time and year round. Also, women with children have increased their participation in the labor force considerably. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 82 percent in 2019. More recently, women in the baby-boom generation (defined as people born between 1946 and 1964) have begun to retire in large numbers, which has put downward pressure on their labor force participation rate over the past decade or so.

This report presents labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 57.4 percent in 2019, up from 57.1 percent in 2018. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.2 percent in 2019, little changed from the previous year (69.1 percent). (See table 2.)Categories

In 2019, the unemployment rate for women was 3.6 percent, down 0.2 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 3.7 percent in 2019, also down 0.2 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s unemployment rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. In 2019, Asian women had the lowest rate (2.7 percent), followed by White women (3.2 percent). Unemployment rates for Hispanic or Latino women and Black or African American women were higher, at 4.7 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively. Men’s unemployment rates exhibit a similar pattern. The rates for Asian men (2.7 percent) and White men (3.3 percent) were below those for Hispanic men (4.0 percent) and Black men (6.6 percent). (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never-married women had the highest participation rate of all women, at 65.0 percent in 2019. Separated and divorced women were more likely to participate in the labor force (63.7 percent and 60.8 percent, respectively) than married women (58.6 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.0 percent) than separated men (70.1 percent), never-married men (68.1 percent), and divorced men (64.7 percent). Labor force participation rates for widowed women and men, who tend to be older, were 19.8 percent and 24.2 percent, respectively. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate for women with children under 18 years of age was 72.4 percent in March 2019, lower than the rate of 93.5 percent for men with children under 18 years. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 77.0 percent, was considerably higher than for those with younger children. The rate for women with children under 6 years old was 66.4 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 63.8 percent. By contrast, the labor force participation rate for fathers was fairly similar, regardless of the age of their children; the rate was 92.2 percent for fathers with children 6 to 17 years old, slightly lower than the rates for fathers of children under 6 years old (95.0 percent) and fathers of children under 3 years old (95.3 percent). (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Historically, unmarried mothers are much more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2019, 78.2 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 70.1 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past half century. In 2019, 45 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2019, 5.4 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

Women accounted for 51.8 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations in 2019, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47.0 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 18.7 percent of software developers, 27.6 percent of chief executives, and 36.4 percent of lawyers were women, whereas 88.9 percent of registered nurses, 80.5 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61.7 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

In 2019, Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (53.3 percent and 46.1 percent, respectively) than were Black (37.2 percent) and Hispanic women (28.5 percent). However, Black (27.6 percent) and Hispanic (31.1 percent) women were more likely than Asian (20.2 percent) and White women (19.5 percent) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

By industry, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several sectors in 2019: education and health services (74.8 percent), other services (53.9 percent), financial activities (52.6 percent), and leisure and hospitality (51.2 percent). (Other services include repair and maintenance industries, personal and laundry services, membership associations and organizations, and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in manufacturing (29.4 percent), agriculture (26.2 percent), transportation and utilities (24.1 percent), mining (15.8 percent), and construction (10.3 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2019, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $821, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($1,007). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($1,025) than for Whites ($840), Blacks ($704), and Hispanics ($642). Women-to-men earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (92 percent) and Hispanics (86 percent) than for Whites (81 percent) and Asians (77 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors, like occupation, that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s median usual weekly earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2019, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had earnings of $494. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $633, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $763, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,195. (See table 17.)

By occupation, median usual weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2019 for chief executives ($2,019), veterinarians ($1,985), computer and information systems managers ($1,892), physicians and surgeons ($1,878), lawyers ($1,878), and pharmacists ($1,877). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,509), physicians and surgeons ($2,500), architectural and engineering managers ($2,457), pharmacists ($2,245), and lawyers ($2,202). (See table 18.)

In 2019, 3 percent of women paid hourly rates had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with about 6 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2019, 23 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. By comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2019. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during the calendar year of 2018, 64 percent worked full time and year round (50 to 52 weeks), compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 76 percent in 2018. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 through 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 53 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2018. This percentage, which has changed little over the past 10 years, is below the peak of 60 percent in the mid- to late 1990s but above the 44 percent seen in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked for pay represented 18 percent of married-couple families in 2018, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 through 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2018, more women (3.9 million) than men (3.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.3 percent for women and 3.7 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were much more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 9.7 percent and 8.7 percent, respectively, higher than the rates of 4.5 percent for White women and 3.1 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2017 through December 2019, 2.7 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 45 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2020: the reemployment rate was 68 percent for women and 72 percent for men. Displaced women and men were also about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2020, at 13 percent and 12 percent, respectively. Twenty percent of displaced women and 16 percent of displaced men had left the labor force. (See table 27; data are from the January 2020 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2020, the median number of years that employed women had been with their employers was 3.9 years, about unchanged from January 2018. Median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2020 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 3.2 million young people ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2019, 66 percent (2.1 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For the 2019 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was higher for young women (70 percent) than for young men (62 percent). (See table 29; data are from the October 2019 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among those enrolled in high school, young women were slightly more likely to be in the labor force (23.7 percent) in October 2019 than were young men (21.0 percent). Among college students, women were much more likely to participate in the labor force than men, at 53.6 percent and 46.1 percent, respectively. Among young people ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2019, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 12.4 percent for young women and 16.1 percent for young men. In contrast, the unemployment rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor’s degree were 4.8 percent and 5.8 percent, respectively. (See table 30; data are from the October 2019 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2019, 8.1 million workers had more than one job. Just over half (4.1 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.6 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.7 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2019, 4.8 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.4 percent of men. Among the self-employed, 40.1 percent were women in 2019, compared with 26.8 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2019 (54.8 percent, compared with 57.9 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (78.0 percent) than were native-born men (67.4 percent). The unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 3.7 percent, was about the same as for native-born women, at 3.6 percent. At 2.7 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.0 percent). (See table 33.)

Union membership

In 2019, 9.7 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 10.8 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2019 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

Veterans

There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2019. Women accounted for 12 percent of the 9.3 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans was 3.7 percent in 2019, and the rate for male veterans was 3.0 percent. (See table 35.)

People with disabilities

Of the 16.2 million women with disabilities in 2019, 2.9 million, or 17.8 percent, participated in the labor force. A little over half of women with disabilities (52 percent) were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.7 percent, compared with 31.0 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among the 14.2 million men with disabilities, 24.3 percent participated in the labor force in 2019. Forty-seven percent of men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.8 percent were labor force participants, compared with 36.3 percent of men ages 16 to 64 with disabilities. Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 7.3 percent, nearly the same as that for men, at 7.4 percent, but more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (3.5 percent and 3.6 percent, respectively). (See table 36.)

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Information in this report will be made available upon request to individuals with sensory impairments. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200. Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339. Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Concepts and definitions

Children refers to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

The civilian labor force includes all people classified as employed or unemployed.

The civilian labor force participation rate represents the number of people in the civilian labor force as a percentage of the civilian noninstitutional population.

The civilian noninstitutional population is made up of people 16 years of age and older residing in any of the 50 states or the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on Active Duty in the Armed Forces.

Disability status is determined in the CPS through a set of six questions. The questions are about physical, mental, or emotional conditions that cause serious difficulty with daily activities. For each of the questions, interviewers ask the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent replies “yes,” he or she is then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the condition. People are classified as having a disability if there is a response of “yes” to any of these questions. More information, including the wording of the six questions used to identify people with a disability, is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Displaced workers are wage and salary workers 20 years of age and older who lost or left jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. Data are presented for long-tenured displaced workers—those who had worked for their employer for 3 or more years at the time of displacement. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. Data are collected through a biennial supplement to the January CPS.

The employed people are those who, during the survey reference week (which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as paid employees, (b) worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or (c) worked 15 or more hours as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or business because of illness, vacation, a labor dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

The employment-population ratio represents the number of employed people as a percentage of the population.

The foreign born are people residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas (such as Puerto Rico or Guam), and neither parent was a U.S. citizen. The foreign-born population includes legally admitted immigrants; refugees; temporary residents, such as students and temporary workers; and undocumented immigrants. The survey does not specifically identify people in these categories, however.

The native born are people born in the United States or one of its outlying areas or, if born abroad, had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity refers to people who identified themselves in the survey process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People who identify themselves as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and are included in estimates for the race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) in addition to being shown separately.

Hours at work reflects the number of hours actually worked (at all jobs) during the survey reference week, which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month. For example, people who normally work 40 hours a week but were off for 8 hours during the Columbus Day holiday would be reported as working 32 hours, even if they were paid for the holiday. (See related information on usual full- or part-time status.)

Married-couple families refers to opposite-sex married spouses (one of whom is the householder) residing together and any of their family members residing in the household.

  • The householder is the person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented and, therefore, is the family reference person.

Workers paid at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage include only workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other workers who are not paid by the hour are not included, even though some have earnings that, if converted to hourly rates, would be at or below the minimum wage. The estimates of workers paid at or below the federal minimum wage in this report are based solely on whether the hourly wage they report (which does not include overtime pay, tips, or commissions) is at or below the federal minimum wage. Some respondents might round hourly earnings when answering survey questions. As a result, some workers might report having hourly earnings above or below the federal minimum wage when, in fact, they earn the minimum wage.

Some workers who reported earnings below the prevailing federal minimum wage may not be covered by federal or state minimum wage laws because of exclusions and exemptions in the statutes. Thus, the presence of workers with hourly earnings below the federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or state statutes in cases where such standards apply. The CPS does not include questions on whether workers are covered by the minimum wage provisions of the FLSA or by individual state or local minimum wage laws.

The estimates presented in this report likely understate the actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage. BLS does not routinely estimate the hourly earnings of workers not paid by the hour because there are data quality concerns associated with constructing such an estimate.

People not in the labor force are those who are neither employed nor unemployed.

Information on occupation and industry applies to the job held during the reference week. People with two or more jobs are classified into the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The occupational and industry classification of CPS data is based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system and the 2012 Census industrial classification system, which are derived from the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), respectively. Additional information about these classifications is available online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#oi.

Poverty classification statistics presented in this report are based on definitions developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and revised by federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1981. These definitions originally were based on the Department of Agriculture’s Economy Food Plan and reflected the different consumption requirements of families, predicated on the basis of factors such as family size and the number of children under 18 years of age.

The actual poverty thresholds vary because of the makeup of the family. In 2018, the weighted average poverty threshold for a family of four was $25,701; for a family of nine or more people, the threshold was $51,393; and for one person (unrelated individual), it was $12,784. Poverty thresholds are updated each year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). Thresholds do not vary geographically. (For more information, see “Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018,” https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2019/demo/p60-266.html.)

Race is reported by the household respondent. In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget standards, White, Black or African American, and Asian are terms used to describe a person’s race. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. Before 2003, people identified one group as their main race. More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf. Data for other race groups—American Indians and Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders—and for people of Two or More Races are included in totals but not separately identified in this report because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of publication quality.

Self-employed workers are those who work for profit or fees in their own business, profession, trade, or farm. Estimates of the self-employed in this report reflect only people whose businesses are unincorporated. Self-employed people whose businesses are incorporated are included with wage and salary workers, unless otherwise specified.

Employee tenure is a measure of how long wage and salary workers had been with their current employer at the time of the survey. Tenure is presented in median years; the median is the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. The data are collected through a biennial supplement to the January CPS.

The unemployed are people who had no employment during the survey reference week, were available for work (except if they had a temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the survey reference week. People who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

The unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

Union membership refers to members of a labor union or of an employee association similar to a union. The data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses.

Usual full- or part-time status is based on the number of hours people usually work per week, regardless of the number of hours worked in the reference week. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 or more hours per week (at all jobs combined). Part-time workers are those who usually work less than 35 hours per week (at all jobs).

Usual weekly earnings reflect earnings before taxes and other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders). Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually, or other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term “usual” is determined by each respondent’s own understanding of the term. If the respondent asks for a definition of “usual,” interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

Earnings estimates are presented as median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The median is the point at which half of all workers had higher earnings and half had lower earnings.

Veterans are men and women 18 years or older who previously served on Active Duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time they were surveyed. People who are on Active Duty at the time of the survey are outside the scope of the survey and thus not in the estimates shown here. Nonveterans are men and women who never served on Active Duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.

Wage and salary workers are people age 16 and older who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates from a private-sector employer or from a local, state, or federal government agency or entity. This includes paid employees of charities, nonprofits, and religious and civic organizations. This group also generally includes the incorporated self-employed because, legally, they are paid employees of a corporation. (Data on union membership, earnings, tenure, and displacement of wage and salary workers exclude all self-employed workers, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses.)

Work experience data reflect work activity during the calendar year and are obtained from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS. Estimates of people who worked are based on “yes” responses to the following questions in the ASEC: “Did you work at a job or business at any time during [the survey reference year]?” or “Did you do any temporary, part-time, or seasonal work even for a few days during [the survey reference year]?” Because the reference period is a full year, the number of people with some employment exceeds the level for any given month, which is based on a 1-week reference period, and the corresponding annual averages of monthly estimates.

Workers paid hourly rates are wage and salary workers who report that they are paid by the hour on their main job. Historically, workers paid an hourly wage have made up approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers.

The working poor are people who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (that is, working or looking for work) but whose incomes still fell below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate is the number of individuals in the labor force for at least 27 weeks whose incomes still fell below the official poverty level, as a percentage of all people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks during the calendar year.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. There are two reasons this occurs: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error occurs because samples differ by chance. The sampling error variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data. More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and on estimating standard errors is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

 

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